R&D personnel


Expertisecentrum Onderzoek en Ontwikkelingsmonitoring (ECOOM) (Centre for Research & Development Monitoring)


R&D personnel: the staff directly involved in research and development. These are not just the researchers but also include managers and administrative staff who supply direct services.

A distinction is made between the following implementation sectors:

  • Businesses: BERD, or Business Expenditures on R&D: the private businesses component and the Collective Research Centres (COC)
  • Government agencies: GOVERD or Government Expenditure on R&D
  • Higher education: HERD or Higher Education Expenditure on R&D (which includes universities and university colleges, as well as research institutions associated with universities) Non-Profit institutions: PNP or Non-Profit Organisations Expenditure on R&D (both semi-public and private organisations and international organisations)
  • Non-profit institutions: PNP or Non-Profit Organisations Expenditures on R&D (both semi-public and private organisations and international organisations)

Remarks on quality

The data is deriven from 2 surveys:

  • There is the biennial ‘light’ version based on the results of the 2017 European Community Innovation Survey (CIS 2017) for the private sector. In that case, the more detailed and robust figures gleaned from the biennial R&D survey of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are not used. The figures for the public research institutions are based on a recent (albeit not entirely exhaustive) survey by the Department of Economy, Science and Innovation (EWI)  among public administrations and higher education. This survey questioned the biggest Flemish R&D players (universities, university colleges, strategic research centres and some other research institutions) on their R&D efforts. Historically speaking, in both cases (GOVERD and HERD) the institutions surveyed account for approximately 90% of the R&D efforts. The Collective Research Centres (BERD collective centres) and the Non-Profit Institutions (PNP) were not surveyed for the ‘light’ version, given their rather small share in the overall Flemish R&D activities.
  • The survey conducted by the Expertisecentrum R&D Monitoring (Centre for R&D Monitoring), which analyses the R&D efforts of private sector companies every two years and also charts the R&D personnel in private-sector companies, and the survey performed by the Department of Economy, Science and Innovation (EWI) which queries all the public institutions on their R&D efforts.


ECOOM: Indicatorenboek – Totale O&O personeel (Indicators Book - Total R&D staff)


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